[Via: Photo Credit founder.limkokwing.net]
Half-life of 24,000 years
What Plutonium was found? 0.54 becquerel per kilogram for plutonium 238 and 0.27 per kilogram each for plutonium 239 and plutonium 240 (WSJ-03/28/11)
Officials say evidence of highly radioactive plutonium has been detected in the soil in five locations around Japan’s earthquake-disabled nuclear reactor.
Plutonium Isotope Half-Lives Defined:
There are 15 isotopes (another form) of plutonium. Some isotopes of plutonium are fissionable meaning that the atomic nucleus is unstable and will split apart, resulting in the release of large amounts of energy. Pu-239 and Pu-241 are the most abundant of the fissionable isotopes of plutonium.
A half-life is the time in which one half of the atoms of a radioactive substance disintegrates into another nuclear form, hence, the time to halve its radioactive strength. Pu-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years and Pu-241′s half-life is 14.4 years. The plutonium isotope with the shortest half-life of 20 minutes is Pu-233. Plutonium-244, which occurs naturally, has the longest half-life of 80,000,000 years. Source: Read More>>>>
The discovery of highly radioactive water outside a reactor building is a worrying development, says the BBC’s Mark Worthington in Tokyo. Up until now, pools of water with extremely high levels of radiation have only been detected within the reactor buildings themselves. The water was found in an underground maintenance tunnel, with one end located about 55m (180ft) from the shore. Source: Read More>>>>
Operators of the Fukushima nuclear plant quoted by Japan’s Kyodo news agency said Monday they believed the plutonium was seeping out from the nuclear fuel in the damaged reactors.
The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) that runs the plant said they did not believe the levels were high enough to be considered a risk to human health.
Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said earlier Monday he suspected a partial meltdown of one of the Fukushima earthquake-disabled nuclear reactors was leading to pools of highly radioactive water that plant operators say have been found outside the plant’s buildings.
Edano said the government’s top priority is to prevent the contaminated water from seeping into the ground water system. He urged residents to stay away from the 20-kilometer evacuation zone as the area continues to be very risky. Source: Read More>>>>
Thorium, named for the Norse god of thunder:
One ton of thorium can produce as much energy as 200 tons of uranium and 3.5 million tons of coal, according to the former director of CERN.
Source: Read More>>>>
Why Thorium was not used? America needed the plutonium residue from uranium to build bombs.
“Thorium is so common that miners treat it as a nuisance, a radioactive by-product if they try to dig up rare earth metals. The US and Australia are full of the stuff. So are the granite rocks of Cornwall. You do not need much: all is potentially usable as fuel, compared to just 0.7pc for uranium.
After the Manhattan Project, US physicists in the late 1940s were tempted by thorium for use in civil reactors. It has a higher neutron yield per neutron absorbed. It does not require isotope separation, a big cost saving. But by then America needed the plutonium residue from uranium to build bombs.
“They were really going after the weapons,” said Professor Egil Lillestol, a world authority on the thorium fuel-cycle at CERN. “It is almost impossible make nuclear weapons out of thorium because it is too difficult to handle. It wouldn’t be worth trying.” It emits too many high gamma rays.
You might have thought that thorium reactors were the answer to every dream but when CERN went to the European Commission for development funds in 1999-2000, they were rebuffed.”
Source: Read More>>>
Julian Assange and his lawyer Jennifer Robinson arrive for his extradition hearing at Belmarsh Magistrates’ Court in London, Thursday, Feb. 24, 2011.
(AP Photo/Matt Dunham)
WASHINGTON (AP) — Julian Assange’s Internet-based outfit: Is it journalism or espionage or something in between?
Justice, State and Defense Department lawyers – it might be possible to prosecute the WikiLeaks founder and others under the Espionage Act, a senior defense official said Tuesday
techcrunch.com reports on Julian Assange on Interpol Most Wanted List Sweden authorizes INTERPOL to make public Red Notice for WikiLeaks founder:
LYON, France – INTERPOL has made public the Red Notice, or international wanted persons alert, for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange
Espionage Act of 1917 made it a crime:
To convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. This was punishable by death or by imprisonment for not more than 30 years or both. To convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies when the United States is at war, to cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or to willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States. This was punishable by a maximum fine of $10,000 fine or by imprisonment for not more than 20 years or both.
WikiLeaks war logs posting ‘will lead to free speech ruling’ US supreme court likely to have to rule on issue of balancing national security and freedom of speech, says judge Sonia Sotomayor!
Photograph: Ed Andrieski/AP
CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW TO IMPEAD FREE SPEACH